Termite gut prokaryotes efficiently support lignocelluloses degradation. share a common goal-to degrade lignocelluloses into different applicable products. it create the symbiotic relationship of termites with the intestinal flagellates and. Simplified scheme of phylogenetic relationships within termites (based on Engel et al. and process of lignocellulose digestion, and the ability to disrupt this function has potential use. for termite flagellates belonging to Endomicrobia (phylum . highlights the origin of termites from a cockroach-. "The relationship between termites and protozoa is very close and its associated intestinal protozoa, with comments on their co-evolution.
The Subterranean termites which live in the soil underground; are able to survive in wide range of temperatures. In US, the subterranean termites are found in every state, except Alaska. As a pest of forest tree, Dampwood termites are rarely damage wood in buildings. They do not nest in the soil but mainly nest in decaying stumps, logs and eucalypt trees. In Malaysia alone, it is estimated there could be species of termites representing 48 genera that live in different habitats in the country Tho, A termite can correspond to up biomass of invertebrates in decomposing trunks Bandeira and Torres, At least ten identified species are known to invade wooden structures, paper products, cotton clothings or ornamental trees.
Other essentially threatening species in Malaysia include Odontotermes sp.
The Mastotermitidae, Kalotermitidae, Termopsidae, Hodotermitidae and Rhinotermitidae families are identified as the lower termites, whilst the Serritermitidae, and Termitidae families are acknowledged as the higher termites.
The main difference between higher and lower termites is the gut of lower termites comprises with protozoa, while the gut of higher termites is lack of protozoa Varma et al. In the digestive tracts of lower termites, degrading of cellulose is depend on flagellates, yeasts and bacteria Breznak and Brune, ; Varma et al.
The higher termites are able to decompose cellulose by using their own enzymes Ohkuma, through the gut passage. Scientists discovered that diets and digestion of cellulose seems to differ between higher and lower termites. In addition, most of the species of lower termites are wood-feeding termite.
The digestion resistance of woods causes the termites to favour wood that has been attacked by fungi. With the presence of fungi mycelia, the woods are richer in protein content and easier to be utilised by termites. By digestion of lignocelluloses and extract their dietary requirements from food resources, it create the symbiotic relationship of termites with the intestinal flagellates and bacteria contained in a large dilatation of their hindgut, which is the paunch.
By contrast, higher termites do not harbour flagellates and typically lack protists hence show different feeding habits. Higher termites decompose cellulose efficiently in the absence of hindgut flagellate protozoa Li et al.
Termite gut microbes | NOLL LAB
The Termitidae ingest a wide range of materials include leaves, roots, grass, dung, and soil humus Wood and Johnson, In addition, there are two groups in Termitidae, fungus-cultivating species and non-fungus-cultivating species. The fungus-cultivating species of termites are able to build a large fungal garden in their nests. The garden is constructed by assembly partially digested plant materials and further digested by fungal mycelium Wood and Thomas, Hence, the termite workers eat the fungus comb which contained nutrition.
The main challenge facing lignocellulosic materials utilization is the energy, costs input involved in treatment and production processes.
Therefore, researches have expanded on the potential of the termite-based biological pretreatment strategy for use in lignocelluloses degradation. Termites efficiently digest lignocellulose using their endogenous and digestive enzymes in the termite gut Breznak and Brune, ; Watanabe et al. The symbiotic digestion of polysaccharides by termites is involving a complex of host and its gut microbiota, which comprises bacteria, fungi, protozoa to degrade cellulose and hemicelluloses Radek, ; Brune, The microbial community in the gut of termites has been attracting many scientists due to their symbiotic digestion mechanisms in the hindgut are largely controlled by the symbionts Brune, Sound wood is most difficult to digest because the polysaccharides of the secondary plant cell wall are embedded in an amorphous resin of phenolic polymers which causing the barrier to enzymatic attack of the polysaccharides Brune, Therefore, an efficient of symbiont-derived digestive enzyme in cellulolytic system is required to the polysaccharides degradation Scharf and Boucias, Therefore, the incredible metabolic capability of the termite gut is potential biocatalyst in aerobic fermentative degradation of carbohydrates, and in metabolism of lignin-derived aromatic compounds Brune, The cellulose activity in the hindgut of termites is attributed to cellulose-degradation bacteria.
Termite gut contains a lot of microbes which can digest cellulose such as the Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus, Paenibaccillus, Streptomyces, Actinobacteria group and Gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter; Facultative microbe: Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogens, citrobacter farmer.
Termites & Intestinal Flagellates by shanice anderson on Prezi
Most of the gut bacteria are necessary for the survival of their hosts even though they are indirectly involved in cellulose degradation in termites gut Slaytor, ; Radek, Other microbial species collaborate in turn to transform the pyruvate to different end-products, such as CO2, acetate, methane or ethanol, depending on availability of oxygen supply Nadin, While concentrations in the midgut are aerobic, oxygen concentrations are low in the hindgut Radek, Eventually the transformation cycle repeats again on another type of substrates.
Termites are mostly feed on the dead grass, wood, and other plant material to obtain essential energy from the digestion of cellulose Andersen and Jacklyn, ; Pearce, Therefore, it is an opportunity of termite biomass used as food sources for the aquaculture, pig, and poultry industries. At present, termite microbes have been proven useful in poultry feed additive. Nutrients left behind in termite wastes may also be useful for horticultural purposes, particularly compost which potential be a novel resource for organic biofertilizers Chai et al.
Current studies showed that termite symbionts have involved as cellulolytic or lignin-derived component and degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons compounds. Hence, that would be useful for industrial application such as biomass consumption, environmental remediation and fine-chemicals production. Advances in the conversion technology will add value to existing biochemicals production and boost exciting economic opportunities of bio-based applications as well as fuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
Despite slower reaction time and careful control of microbial growth conditions, biological system involving termite symbionts appears to be more appealing Sun and Cheng, ; Zheng et al.
The termite gut is explored as a source of novel microorganisms and may bring many benefits to large scale industrial applications Tokuda et al. In fact, the symbiotic association of termites with their diversity intestinal macrobiotic is receiving interests from various aspects such as microbiology, biochemistry, protozoology, insect physiology and ecology, socio-biology, evolutionary biology, and even in atmospheric chemistry Sanderson, ; Higashi and Abe, ; Sugimoto et al.
Hence, researches have been further expanded on the anaerobic food web and nitrogen metabolism in the termite gut. In addition, in microbial gut of termite, also include nitrogen fixing bacteria Benemann, ; Breznak et al. Since the nitrogen compound are insufficient in wood and soil, the nitrogen fixing bacteria e. However, the wood-feeding termites are strongly nitrogen limited Brune and Ohkuma, The spirochetes are involved in acetogenesis and N2 fixation process to provide the carbon, nitrogen and energy needs of their termite host.
The protozoans and the bacteria and archeae that live insided them often depend upon one another and cannot live without each other, so they are an example of an obligate symbiosis. The bacteria and archaea that live inside their partner are also called endosymbionts"endo-" meaning "within. Bacteria and archaea are about a ten times smaller and appear as small specks in these photos. None of these organisms have a color and are largely transparent.
To photograph them without using dyes to stain them which would kill them we used a special kind of microscope that uses Nomarski optics to distinguish the microbes from the surrounding water. This gives three-dimensional images of the microbes. Photos courtesy of Dan Gage The protozoans come in a variety of shapes and move around rapidly. These are their flagella that they use to move. They consume wood particles through the larger end of the cell.
They cannot break down the wood by themselves. They harbor bacteria inside them that do this for them and some of the chemical products that those bacteria produce are used as food by. This is an example of a symbiosis or "living together". Personympha vertens or maybe Personympha minor? You be the judge. Microjoenia Holomastigotes elongatum Many of the bacteria in the termite gut live closely associated with the protozoans, sometimes on their surface or inside the protozoan cells.
They aid in digestion of food and disposal of waste products. In these photos, the bacteria were stained with a dye that stains DNA so they show up as small white or grey spots. The larger white spots are the nuclei of the protists that contains their chromosomes that are made of DNA. Bacteria inside white arrows an unidentified protozoan.